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Trying to understand how to annoy the hell out of established democratic parties? Sara Hobolt and Catherine de Vries give you a tour around the tactics and technics of those who succed best these days. They call them challenger parties: "Issue entrepreneurship and issue flexibility are the prerogative of challenger parties rather than established parties as the former are not constrained by historical legacies linked to long-standing social divisions and therefore have much more room for programmatic malleability.
Charismatically, challenger parties are explicitly anti-establishment, emphasise the personality of the leader and use emotional appeals in their rhetoric. This charismatic strategy allows challenger parties to carefully craft a basis of support amongst those voters that felt left behind by mainstream politics.
What is crucial for the strategy of challenger parties and their success is the combination of programmatic and charismatic strategies. This combination allows challenger parties to make even distant and technocratic issues, like European integration, into a vote winner and allows them to merge a diverse set of issue positions into a coherent narrative about the failings of the establishment.